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Harvard Referencing Guide: Email message in a Public Domain

Email message in a Public Domain

Email message in a Public Domain

Email message in a public domain

Email message in a Public Domain


Email messages may be made made public in electronic conferences, discussion groups and bulletin boards.


Email messages that are made publicly available in this way generally require the following elements:

  • Author of the message
  • Year of the message (in round brackets)
  • Subject of the message (in single quotation marks)
  • Discussion group or Bulletin board in italics
  • Date posted: day/month
  • Available email: email address


In-text citation

Although it is possible for a book to be cited more than once in the main body of a piece of work, a full reference to the book should only occur once in the Reference List / Bibliography at the end of the work (Jones, 2018).




Full Reference for the Reference List / Bibliography

Jones, D. (2018) 'Referencing standards', Academic Support Group discussion list,  20 May. Available email:


Harvard Referencing Guide: A - Z